UKCAT Verbal Reasoning Practice Questions Volume 1 continued

 Glass

Glass can occur naturally, and some is formed as a product of volcanoes.  One such volcanic glass, called Obsidian, has been used since the Stone Age to assist in the production of sharp cutting tools. However, the first manufactured glass was either made in Northern Mesopotamia or Egypt. The Egyptian climate means that many ancient artefacts are extremely well preserved and many date back to the 3rd millennium BC. However whilst there is no doubt that some of the glass found was made within Egypt it is a possibility that some was also imported from elsewhere.

In the late Bronze Age, there was an explosion in glass-making all across Egypt, and many new glass-making technologies were developed. The earliest glass drinking-chalices were made by covering a mould made of sun-baked mud in molten glass and fusing it time and time again, reheating as the process continued.

In Europe, glass was manufactured from the 1st Century AD but stained glass was not extensively made until after the 12th century when it became an important means to communicate in Gothic art. Many notable displays can be seen in churches all over Europe, such as the South Transept Window at Canterbury Cathedral which was developed in the 13th Century.

Today glass is manufactured mainly from sodium carbonate, lime and silicon dioxide. Lime is mostly composed of calcium-containing inorganic materials.  This mixture is melted in a furnace and is then cooled and refined to ensure no bubble formation. The flat glass used for windows is formed by the float glass process. This was developed by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff between 1953 and 1957. Glass for jars and containers is made by blowing and pressing methods. Glass is used extensively around the world for a multitude of applications from the obvious window-pane making to the less obvious examples such as CD manufacture and fibre optic technology.


9. Glass only occurs naturally in volcanoes

10. The Egyptian climate causes artefacts to be well preserved

11. At least half of the glass in Ancient Egypt was imported

12. Glass making happened in every major city in Egypt in the late bronze age

13. Stained glass was made in the 10th Century

14. No stained glass was made before the 12th century

15. The best example of stained glass in Europe is in Canterbury Cathedral and dates back to the 13th Century

16. In modern times glass is made from three substances: sodium carbonate, lime and silicone dioxide

17. Pilkington and Bickerstaff contributed equally to the development of the float glass process

18. All windows are made of glass


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